1: Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2005 Fall;5(4):391-6.

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Role of vagal activity on bradicardic and hypotensive effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE).

Iraz M, Fadillioglu E, Tasdemir S, Erdogan S.

Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty of Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phenolic active component of propolis of honeybee hives and reduces heart rate and blood pressure in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of vagal activity and atropine blockage on the bradycardic and hypotensive effects of CAPE in rats. The rats were divided into five groups (n = 8). Saline and vehicle (10% ethanol) of CAPE were given to the first and second groups, respectively. Group 3 was treated with 5 mg/kg CAPE. Group 4 bivagotomized and treated with 5 mg/kg CAPE. Group 5 treated with atropine (5 microg/microL/min) continuously and treated with CAPE. The electrophysiological monitoring was done for each experiment under urethane anesthetize. As a result, CAPE caused intense and transient bradycardia and hypotension. Vagotomy completely abolished bradycardia occurred via CAPE injection; however atropine attenuated bradycardic effects of CAPE. On the other hand, hypotensive effect of CAPE was affected from neither bilateral vagotomy nor atropine treatment. It was thought that CAPE may exert its effects on heart rate via a central parasympathetic control mechanism, but not on central parasympathetic blood pressure control system.

PMID: 16382176 [PubMed - in process]

2: Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):1909-14.

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Antihypertensive effects of Brazilian propolis: identification of caffeoylquinic acids as constituents involved in the hypotension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Mishima S, Yoshida C, Akino S, Sakamoto T.

Nagaragawa Research Center, API Co., Ltd; 692-3 Yamasaki, Nagara, Gifu 502-0071, Japan.

Brazilian propolis was extracted with water or various concentrations of ethanol and were administered orally to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the effects on blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Single oral administration of 100 mg/kg of propolis extracts decreased the blood pressure in SHR. Significant decrease in blood pressure was observed with propolis extracted with 25 and 70% ethanol. SHR were given orally 5 mg/kg of propolis extracted with 25 or 70% ethanol, twice a day for 28 d and the effects on blood pressure and heart rate were compared with control rats. While the blood pressure in the control group increased day by day, the increase was slower in rats treated with 25 and 70% ethanol extracts of propolis. The hypotensive activity of propolis extracted with 25% ethanol was more significant compared with control group than with 70% ethanol. Di- and tri-caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) were found to be characteristic components of propolis extracted with 25% ethanol. A single oral administration of 3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, and 3,4,5-triCQA each at a dose of 10 mg/kg were conducted in SHR. These three components were found to have antihypertensive effects and therefore contribute to the antihypertensive effects of propolis extract. These results suggest that 25% ethanol extract of propolis is useful for prevention and treatment of hypertension.

PMID: 16204944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2004 Dec;31 Suppl 2:S29-30.

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Anti-hypertensive effects of brazilian propolis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Kubota Y, Umegaki K, Kobayashi K, Tanaka N, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Kunitomo M, Shinozuka K.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan.

SUMMARY 1. Changes in the cardiovascular parameters of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were examined following a 4-week diet of either Brazilian propolis or Eucommia uloides OLIVER (tochu). 2. A 4-week diet of propolis or tochu resulted in significant reductions in systolic blood pressure in SHR but had no effect on WKY. Experiments using aorta isolated from animals fed a diet of propolis or tochu revealed increased acetylcholine-induced relaxation in SHR and no change in acetylcholine-induced relaxation in WKY. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was unaffected by propolis or tochu in both animal groups. 3. These results suggest that propolis and tochu produce an antihypertensive effect that may be mediated by potentiation of acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation.

PMID: 15649281 [PubMed - in process]

4: Fitoterapia. 2002 Nov;73 Suppl 1:S1-6.

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Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.

Castaldo S, Capasso F.

Department of I.N.P.S. of Naples, via Medina 63, Naples, Italy.

Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.

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PMID: 12495704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: Arzneimittelforschung. 1978;28(2):291-2.

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Biological properties and clinical application of propolis. X. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP).

Kleinrok Z, Borzecki Z, Scheller S, Matuga W.

A study consisting of an examination of the acute toxicity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) in mice, its effect on spontaneous movement in mice and rats, its analgesic properties and its influence on body temperature in mice was conducted. Also examined was the activity of EEP on animals under the influence of narcotics and spontaneous movement under the influence of amphetamine, its effects on blood pressure and respiration in rats. The results of these examinations indicate that EEP injected i.p. has a weak general effect on the experimental animals.

PMID: 580395 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]