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1: Clin Biochem. 2005 Feb;38(2):191-6.

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Effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rat heart.

Okutan H, Ozcelik N, Yilmaz HR, Uz E.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Suleyman Demirel University Medical School, 6 Mart Ataturk C. Istiklal M. Oztunc A., No:1 D:4 32050 Isparta, Turkey.

OBJECTIVES: The risk for cardiovascular disease is significantly high in diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, has several biological and pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral, and immunomodulatory activities. In light of the antioxidant ability of CAPE, the effects of CAPE on the antioxidative status of cardiac tissue were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups: group I, control, nondiabetic rats (n = 9); group II, STZ-induced, untreated diabetic rats (n = 7); and group III, STZ-induced, CAPE-treated diabetic rats (n = 10). In groups II and III, diabetes developed 3 days after intraperitoneal (ip) administration of a single 35 mg kg(-1) dose of STZ. Thereafter, while the rats in group II received no treatment, the rats in group III began to receive a 10 mumol kg(-1) ip dose of CAPE per day. After 8 weeks, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the cardiac tissues of all groups were analyzed. RESULTS: In untreated diabetic rats, MDA markedly increased in the cardiac tissue compared with the control rats (P < 0.05). However, MDA levels were reduced to the control level by CAPE. The activities of SOD and CAT in the untreated diabetic group and the CAPE-treated diabetic group were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). Rats in the CAPE-treated diabetic group had reduced activities of SOD and CAT in comparison with the rats in the untreated diabetic group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the activity of GSH-Px between the rats in the untreated diabetic group and the control group. However, the activity of GSH-Px was increased in CAPE-treated diabetic rats compared with the control and untreated diabetic rats (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These results reveal that diabetes mellitus increases oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and CAPE has an ameliorating effect on the oxidative stress via its antioxidant property.

PMID: 15642285 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Pharmacol Res. 2005 Feb;51(2):147-52.

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Effects of propolis on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus.

Fuliang HU, Hepburn HR, Xuan H, Chen M, Daya S, Radloff SE.

College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.

The effects of ethanol (EEP) and water (WSD) extracts of propolis collected from north China on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus were studied. The results show that EEP and WSD led to decreased levels of blood glucose (FBG), fructosamine (FRU), malonaldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum of fasting rats; and to increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This suggests that propolis can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose and blood lipid, leading to decreased outputs of lipid peroxidation and scavenge the free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus.

PMID: 15629260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S66.

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Effect of combined propolis-ethanol-extract and Shaoyao-Gancao-tang on blood sugar levels in rabbits with alloxan induced experimental diabetes.

Wang NZ, Li D.

Dept of Food Science, Hangzhou University of Commerce, Hangzhou, China 310035.

Background - Propolis, a bee-hive product, has been used as a Chinese folk medicine for thousand years, with reported beneficial effects on various clinical conditions. Shaoyao-Gancao-tang, a prescription Chinese Medicine, is a mixture of the water extract of liquorice (Radix Glycyrrhizac) and peony (Paeonialaciflora) roots. Objective - To investigate the effect of combined propolis-ethanol-extract and Shaoyao-Gancao-tang (PSG) on blood sugar levels of rabbits following alloxan induced experimental diabetes. Design - PSG was prepared as a 1:1 mixture of propolis-ethanol-extract and water extract of liquorice and peony roots. Fasting (8 h) blood sugar > 180mg/mL was considered as experimental diabetes after rabbits were treated with 100mg/kg of 5% alloxan for 72 h. Blood sugar levels of the diabetic rabbits were measured after they were given a 0.3g/kg oral dose of PSG (n=8) or propolis (n=8) at 6 and 24 h, respectively. A control group of diabetic rabbits (n=8) had no PSG or propolis administered and were tested at the same time points. Outcomes - Compared with control group, diabetic rabbits treated with PSG or propolis showed a significant reduction in blood sugar levels at 24 h (P<0.05), and PSG was more potent than propolis alone. Conclusions - The results indicated that propolis-ethanol-extract has a beneficial effect on reduction of blood sugar levels in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits, and may have a synergistic effect with Shaoyao-Gancao-tang.

PMID: 15294555 [PubMed - in process]

4: Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 May-Jun;10(3):78-9.

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Antihyperglycemic effects of propolis mixed with mulberry leaf extract on patients with type 2 diabetes.

Murata K, Yatsunami K, Fukuda E, Onodera S, Mizukami O, Hoshino G, Kamei T.

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PMID: 15154157 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5: J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):3083-8.

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Identification of metabolites in plasma and urine of Uruguayan propolis-treated rats.

Kumazawa S, Shimoi K, Hayashi K, Ishii T, Hamasaka T, Nakayama T.

Laboratory of Functional Food Science and COE Program in the 21st Century, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.

Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from various plant sources. It is extensively used in food and beverages to improve health and prevent diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To investigate the absorption and metabolism of the components in propolis, in the present study, we administered ethanol extracts of Uruguayan propolis (poplar type propolis) orally to rats and analyzed their plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection. After deconjugation of the components by beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment of the specimen, pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, pinobanksin, kaempferol, chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in plasma of rats orally administered propolis. These compounds were detected also in urine after beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Furthermore, pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, pinobanksin, chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were present in the urine also in free form. These results suggest that flavonoids in propolis are metabolized and circulate in the body after oral administration of propolis.

PMID: 15137857 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6: Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Apr 1;32(7):1141-8.

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Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency.

Havsteen B.

A review has been presented of the biochemistry and pharmacology of a class of natural products, the flavonoids. These substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and present in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages have in a concentrated form (Propolis) been used since ancient times by physicians and laymen to treat a great variety of human diseases but they have yet to pass the tests of modern, controlled, clinical experimentation. An attempt has been made to present the fundamental evidence from the basic biological sciences which is required to stimulate the interest of the clinicians in this new field. The few existing reports on the careful pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies which have been made have been summarized to provide a basis for a full-scale investigation of the therapeutic potential of flavonoids.

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PMID: 6342623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]