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1: J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Nov 14; [Epub ahead of print]

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Propolis: Effect of different concentrations, extracts and intake period on seric biochemical variables.

Mani F, Damasceno HC, Novelli EL, Martins EA, Sforcin JM.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Biosciences Institute, UNESP, 18600-000 Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

Propolis is a resinous substance produced by honeybees that possesses many biological activities, such as antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory, among others. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the biochemical profile of propolis-treated rats to observe whether propolis might lead to side effects after administration. Three different treatments were analyzed: (1) rats were treated with different concentrations of propolis (1, 3 and 6mg/kg/day) during 30 days; (2) rats were treated with 1mg/kg/day of ethanolic or water extracts of propolis (EEP, WEP) during 30 days; (3) rats were treated with 1mg/kg/day of ethanolic extract of propolis during 90 and 150 days. Our results demonstrated no alterations in the seric levels of cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and in the specific activity of aminotransferases (AST) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) of propolis-treated groups when compared to controls. On the basis of our findings, since propolis does not induce any significant change in seric parameters, it is claimed that long-term administration of propolis might not have any cardiac injury.

PMID: 16293383 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

2: Pharmacol Res. 2005 Feb;51(2):147-52.

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Effects of propolis on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus.

Fuliang HU, Hepburn HR, Xuan H, Chen M, Daya S, Radloff SE.

College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China.

The effects of ethanol (EEP) and water (WSD) extracts of propolis collected from north China on blood glucose, blood lipid and free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus were studied. The results show that EEP and WSD led to decreased levels of blood glucose (FBG), fructosamine (FRU), malonaldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum of fasting rats; and to increased serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This suggests that propolis can control blood glucose and modulate the metabolism of glucose and blood lipid, leading to decreased outputs of lipid peroxidation and scavenge the free radicals in rats with diabetes mellitus.

PMID: 15629260 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3: Fitoterapia. 2002 Nov;73 Suppl 1:S1-6.

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Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine.

Castaldo S, Capasso F.

Department of I.N.P.S. of Naples, via Medina 63, Naples, Italy.

Propolis is one of the few natural remedies that has maintained its popularity over a long period of time. The pharmacologically active molecules in the propolis are flavonoids and phenolic acids and their esters. These components have multiple effects on bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, propolis and its components have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, propolis has been shown to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. However, clinical studies to substantiate these claims are required.

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PMID: 12495704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4: Eksp Klin Farmakol. 1994 Jul-Aug;57(4):39-42.

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[The liver-protective properties of the pediatric drug form of propolis in animals of different age groups]

[Article in Russian]

Drogovoz SM, Tikhonov AI, Slyshkov VV, Sal'nikova SI.

The pharmacological activity of a pediatric formulation of the phenolic hydrophobic drug propolis was studied in the experiments on albino rats of various age with toxic liver damages of various duration and in acute hepatic ischemia. In all models of hepatic abnormalities, the drug was found to show antioxidative properties which were moderate (30-60%). In addition, there were improvements in hepatic secretion of bile, cholic acids, and cholesterol. On the other hand, the membrane-stabilizing effect of the drug was exerted in not all the tested models of hepatic damage.

PMID: 7950783 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]